Mikroflora und Qualität traditioneller Rohwurst Lemeški Kulen
Microflora and quality of traditional dry fermented sausage Lemeški Kulen
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The traditional dry fermented sausage Lemeški Kulen is produced from pork, red paprika (3-4%) and salt (2.0-2.2%) by small producers in Northern Serbia. The microbial stability of the sausage in the first and most sensitive phase of production is ensured by low winter temperatures and the salt content of the product. At the beginning of drying, the aw-value of the sausage is 0.96-0.97, while after a drying period of three months this value reaches 0.90-0.92. At the same time, slow fermentation of sugars from the red paprika to organic acids occurs, followed by a moderate decrease of the pH value. At the beginning of the fermentation, the pH value is 5.6-5.8, while after three months it is 5.1-5.3. The sugar fermentation is caused by lactic acid bacteria, which are present in the sausage as a natural microflora. Important changes during the natural ripening of the sausage, as well as, the building of colour, texture and flavour, take place in spring at higher air temperature. Lemeški Ku...len is produced without addition of carotenoides and nitrate from the red paprika used in the recipe. Typical consistence and texture of Lemeški Kulen are developed during ripening, due to the effect of several factors such as salt, red paprika, pH-value and drying. During drying and ripening the consistence of the sausage becomes firmer, but the sausage is easily chewy at the end of the production process. The flavour of the sausage is pleasant and typical for the sausage spiced with red paprika. However, the piquant taste of the sausage is not stronger then the taste of ripening sausage and it is expressed normally as an aftertaste. During sausage ripening the protelytic index increases from 12-14 % to 24-28 % and the pH value from 5.1-5.3 to 5.4-5.9. The acid value also increases from 1.7-3.0 to 24-28 mg KOH/ kg, but the peroxyde value and TBARS value do not change. The antioxidative effect is caused by the caroteniods, tacoperols, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, phenolacids, ascorbinacid and nitrates from red paprika, as well as by micrococci. Ripened dry sausage contains on the average: 28% water, 33% meat proteins and fat and 4% salt, and the BEEFE-value is about 94%. Pathogenes- Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and coagulase positive staphylococci - are not found in Lemenški Kulen.
Keywords:Dry fermented sausage / LemeÅ¡ki Kulen / Microflora / Quality / Traditional producing
Source:Fleischwirtschaft, 2014, 94, 8, 114-118
- Deutscher Fachverlag GmbH, Frankfurt Main