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Značenje kliničke primjene timola

dc.creatorMujezinović, Indira
dc.creatorSmajlović, Ahmed
dc.creatorZuko, A.
dc.creatorDukić, B.
dc.creatorĆupić, Vitomir
dc.description.abstractThymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is a natural compound from a group of monotherpentinic phenols. These phenols are present in the essential oils of many plants of the Labiateae family, which are used in the folk medicine for centuries. During this long-term period, it is established that thymol has, together with antiseptic and spasmolytic, also antihelmintic action. Thymol antimicrobial spectrum is wide because it acts on Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria, fungi and yeasts. As a natural alternative to antibiotics, unlike many traditional antibiotics with bactericidal action, thymol attacks bacterial organelles, especially respiratory chain enzymes, which are linked to mesosomes of the cell membranes, which leads to complete destruction of pathogenic aerobic bacteria results due to a blockage of the cellular respiration and death of the bacteria. During numerous in vitro and in vivo studies conducted with thymol, it has been proved that thymol has antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, spasmolytic and anthelmintic effects. It has a wide spectrum of effects against both, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and molds. Nowadays, thymol is used successfully both in human and in veterinary medicine. In veterinary practice, it is used with different species of animals in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Also, it is widely used in beekeeping as a good acaricide at very low concentrations. The exact mechanism of acaridical action of thymol is still not sufficiently known. General idea is that timol acaricidal action is mediated via GABA (A) receptor-R, leading to a neurotoxic effect on the octopaminergic nerves of ticks and insects. Most likely, the death of the ticks is the result of their choking. Thymol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal system, metabolized by oxidation and glucuronidation, and rapidly (in the first 24 hours of application) excreted via urine, and to a small extent in the unchanged and in large part in the form of glucuronides and /or conjugated sulphates. Additionally, it was found that thymol is quickly reabsorbed from the site of administration, promptly metabolized and rapidly excreted from the organism. Thymol is a natural and safe active substance for which MRL is not established, and it is listed in Annex II of the List of substances without withdrawal period. During the investigation of thymol residues in some bee products (honey and wax) it was found that treatments with this natural substance can be considered to be good alternatives for synthetic acaricides, especially because they do not represent a sanitary risk. Thymol has been evaluated 1992 by the Committee of Expert on Flavorings Substances of the Council of Europe. Thymol is listed among the substances that are permitted as flavouring agents. An upper limit for inclusion of thymol in food has been established at 50 mg/kg and in beverages at 10 mg/kg. During clinical trials of the various medicinal preparations containing thymol on bee-keeping communities, at the established therapeutic concentrations, no adverse effects have been observed. Thymol did not show any theratogenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic effects.en
dc.publisherCroatian Veterinary Institute
dc.sourceVeterinarska Stanica
dc.subjectHoneybee coloniesen
dc.subjectMonoterpene phenolsen
dc.subjectVarroa destructoren
dc.titleImportance of clinical applications of thymolen
dc.titleZnačenje kliničke primjene timolasr
dcterms.abstractЋупић, Витомир; Мујезиновић, Индира; Смајловић, Aхмед; Зуко, A.; Дукић, Б.; Значење клиничке примјене тимола; Значење клиничке примјене тимола;
dc.citation.other49(2): 123-129

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