Application of assisted reproductive technologies in cattle production
Primjena asistirane reprodukcije u govedarstvu
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Prvanović Babić, N.
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More than five decades of research in reproductive biology have resulting in the development of biotechnologies in the cattle industry to increase efficiency in beef and dairy production systems. These technologies are related to gamete and embryo manipulation aimed at improving fertility and genetic progress. The application of assisted reproductive technology in stockbreeding has tremendously altered the rate of genetic improvement in breeding programmes and strategies. Artificial insemination, embryo transfer and in vitro embryo production are technologies systematically applied in breeding programs around the world. They enable rapid genetic progress, shortening of the generation interval, control of disease transmission and reduction of production costs. Worldwide, artificial insemination has been the most efficient and useful way to improve the genetic quality of the herd. Over a period of thirty years, embryo transfer has become an internationally accepted technology with over 5...00, 000 in vivo produced embryos per year. The recommended handling procedures of the International Embryo Transfer Society enable the safe export of in vivo derived embryos, without the risk of disease transmission. Approximately 15% of embryos produced annually are produced by in vitro technology. This technology enables embryo production from cows of high genetic merit that cannot produce offspring by conventional reproduction. Improvements in OPU/IVF programs would have a great impact on the cattle industry and could replace the traditional MOET programs in the near future. Furthermore, they are important for the development and operation of a gene bank for the cryoconservation of animal genetic resources, to preserve indigenous and endangered breeds of cattle. In addition to genetic progress, the application of these biotechnologies in animal breeding permits high quality breeding stock to be available on the market and enables the application of advanced technologies. Semen and embryo sexing allows for identification and selection of sex, which can assist in the more efficient management of resources. Cloning and transgenesis have great potential in the cattle industry, though due to their low efficiency and high costs, these technologies are predominantly applied in experimental settings and the production of pharmaceuticals.
Keywords:Assisted reproductive technologies / Cattle / Cloning / Embryo transfer / In vitro technology / Transgenesis
Source:Veterinarska Stanica, 2018, 49, 2, 91-104
- Croatian Veterinary Institute